The paper aims to offer a global perspective upon the development of theoretical models and logic of inferences in the field of neuropsychological assessment, paralleled by the inevitable evolution of their criticisms. Contributions from functional neuroimaging techniques and connectionst models are considered, but some of their limitations are also taken into account, therefore emphasizing the need for an interdisciplinary approach that would permit inferences regarding normal models of cognition. We discuss the impact of neuropsychological research upon models of development and upon the identification of cognitive/behavioral phenotypes in the case of atypical development. Finally, we attempt to offer a glimpse into the future of neuropsychological assessment that relies, in our opinion, in providing services for the rehabilitation and improvement of cognitive health.
Keywords: neuropsychological assessment, atypical development, critical approach